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New Articles:

Discovery paves way for more sustainable crop cultivation methods

Rutgers researchers have discovered that nitrogen-fixing bacteria hidden within leaf cells could lead to more efficient and sustainable methods of crop cultivation.

Published: June 8, 2022

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Root cell bacteria may be key to hardier crops

Researchers say bacteria that colonize root cells stimulate root hair growth and increase water and mineral absorption

Published: July 15, 2021

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How plants harness microbes to get nutrients

Rutgers-led study could lead to enhanced crop growth, fewer weeds and lower fertilizer and herbicide use

Published: September 17, 2018

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‘Anti-Probiotics’ Could Suppress Weeds and Invasive Plants

Scientists are finding microbes that are good for crops but bad for weeds.

Published: September 5, 2018

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A Regenerative Future with Matt Powers | Episode 145: James White on Bacteria in Plant Roots

Last time we spoke with Dr. James F. White of Rutgers University, we learned about how some microbes are consumed while some persist and even are promoted inside the roots of plants, but which ones, why, and how was not known at that time… Since then, there have been new discoveries. Join us for a deep dive into the WHY & HOW of Rhizophagy.

Uploaded: June 7, 2021

A Regenerative Future with Matt Powers | Episode 132: The Rhizophagy Cycle with James White

This is an incredible episode of A Regenerative Future with James White PhD who teaches Mycology at Rutgers University and has studied endophytes for 40 years!! His knowledge is deep and his perspective is inspiring. Don’t miss this amazing episode where James White explains the Rhizophagy Cycle in detail!

Uploaded: October 16, 2020

Regenerative Agriculture Podcast with John Kempf | How Plants Absorb Living Microbes and Convert Soil Pathogens into Beneficials with James White

In this episode of the Regenerative Agriculture Podcast, John Kempf and Dr. James White of Rutgers University discuss how plants “farm” microbes, convert fungi from pathogenic to beneficials, and send endophytic ambassadors to forage for plant nutrition. Listen to this absorbing conversation to hear John and James cover the science behind these functions.

Uploaded: January 14, 2020


Microbiome Stimulants for Crops: Mechanisms and Applications (2021)

1st Edition

Editors: James F. White Jr., Ajay Kumar, Samir Droby


Microbiome Stimulants for Crops: Mechanisms and Applications provides the latest developments in the real-world development and application of these crop management alternatives in a cost-effective, yield protective way. Sections address questions of research, development and application, with insights into recent legislative efforts in Europe and the United States. The book includes valuable information regarding mechanisms and the practical information needed to support the growing microbial inoculant and biostimulant industry, thus helping focus scientific research in new directions.

Available at: Elsevier, Amazon

Seed Endophytes: Biology and Biotechnology (2019)

1st Edition

Editors: Satish Kumar Verma, James F. White Jr.


This book focuses on the importance and roles of seed microbiomes in sustainable agriculture by exploring the diversity of microbes vectored on and within seeds of both cultivated and non-cultivated plants. It provides essential insights into how seeds can be adapted to enhance microbiome vectoring, how damaged seed microbiomes can be assembled again and how seed microbiomes can be conserved.

Plant seeds carry not only embryos and nutrients to fuel early seedling growth, but also microbes that modulate development, soil nutrient acquisition, and defense against pathogens and other stressors. Many of these microbes (bacteria and fungi) become endophytic, entering into the tissues of plants, and typically exist within plants without inducing negative effects. Although they have been reported in all plants examined to date, the extent to which plants rely on seed vectored microbiomes to enhance seedling competitiveness and survival is largely unappreciated. How microbes function to increase the fitness of seedlings is also little understood.

The book is a unique and important resource for researchers and students in microbial ecology and biotechnology. Further, it appeals to applied academic and industrial agriculturists interested in increasing crop health and yield.

Available at: Springer, Amazon, Barnes & Noble

The Fungal Community: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem (2017)

4th Edition

Editors: John Dighton, James F. White Jr.


This book is an overview of current international research regarding fungal biology. This book includes the following topic areas:

  1. Integrating genomics and metagenomics into community analysis
  2. Recent advances in fungal endophyte research
  3. Fungal communitiesi n terrestrial ecosystems
  4. Fungal communities in marine and aquatic ecosystems
  5. Fungal adaptations to stress and conservation
  6. Fungal-faunal interactions
  7. Fungal communities, climate change and pollution
  8. Fungi in the built environment
  9. Fungal signaling and communication

Available at: Routledge, Amazon

Defensive Mutualism in Microbial Symbiosis (2009)

1st Edition

Editors: James F. White Jr., Monica S. Torres


Anemones and fish, ants and acacia trees, fungus and trees, buffaloes and oxpeckers–each of these unlikely duos is an inimitable partnership in which the species’ coexistence is mutually beneficial. More specifically, they represent examples of defensive mutualism, when one species receives protection against predators or parasites in exchange for offering shelter or food to its partner species.

The past 20 years, since this phenomenon first began receiving attention, have been marked by a deluge of research in a variety of organism kingdoms and much has been discovered about this intriguing behavior. Defensive Mutualism in Microbial Symbiosis includes basic ecological and biological information on defensive mutualisms, explores how they function, and evaluates how they have evolved. It also looks at the implications of symbiosis defensive compounds as a new frontier in bioexploration for drug and natural product discovery–the first book to explore this possibility.

The book expands the concept of defensive mutualisms to evaluate defense against environmental abiotic and biotic stresses. Addressing the topic of defensive mutualisms in microbial symbiosis across this wide spectrum, it includes chapters on defensive mutualistic associations involving multiple kingdoms of organisms in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems–plant, animal, fungi, bacteria, and protozoans.

Defensive Mutualism in Microbial Symbiosis unifies scattered findings into a single compendium, providing a valuable reference for field researchers and those in academia to assimilate and acquire a knowledgeable perspective on defensive mutualism, particularly those involving microbial partners.

Available at: Routledge, Amazon

Clavicipitalean Fungi: Evolutionary Biology, Chemistry, Biocontrol And Cultural Impacts (2003)

1st Edition

Editors: James F. White Jr., Charles W. Bacon, Nigel L. Hywel-Jones, Joseph W. Spatafora


This reference analyzes the ecology, evolution, genetics, physiology, and taxonomy of this diverse group of fungi for identification of common biological, biochemical, and genetic features and discovery of potential medical and agricultural applications. It traces and reconstruct the evolution of various host-endoparasite systems and studies recent taxonomic research and DNA sequence analyses on plant-infecting clavicipitaleans. Providing a holistic view of the entire clavicipitalean family, the book compares morphologic, geographic, and host variations among various clavicipitalean populations and examines key discoveries and compounds obtained in clavicipitalean studies.

Available at: Routledge, Amazon

Microbial Endophytes (2000)

1st Edition

Editors: Charles W. Bacon, James F. White Jr.


Examining intercellular infections in certain plant species that lead to a symbiotic relationship between the host and its endophytic microbes, this volume demonstrates the ability of many types of endosymbionts, acting as a unit with hosts to better survive, compete and reproduce. Practical applications of such endophytes are also discussed, for example, pharmaceutical developments and agricultural management.

Available at: Routledge

Biotechnology of Endophytic Fungi of Grasses (1994)

4th Edition

Editors: Charles W. Bacon, James F. White Jr.


This book considers the biological, ecological, toxicology, and chemical aspects of research topics as they relate to endophytes of grasses. Several chapters reflect the very pragmatic applications of endophytes and endophyte-infected grasses. Other chapters offer future applications for endophytes and are therefore discussed from theoretical viewpoints. This book contains the collective writings of an international group of experts on fungal endophytes of grasses, all of whom are directed toward, understanding, creating, and exploiting the positive aspects of endophytes. With this book, we are attempting to stimulate and facilitate future explorations of the grass endophytes.

Available at: Routledge, Amazon

Book Chapters:

1 – Entry, colonization, and distribution of endophytic microorganisms in plants


Authors: Ajay Kumar, Samir Droby, Vipin Kumar Singh, Sandeep Kumar Singh, James Francis White


Inside plants, microbial communities live as endophytes without causing any disease symptoms or adverse impacts to the host plant. These microbial communities may comprise bacteria, fungi, and archaea. In the last few decades endophytic microbes have been broadly used in sustainable agriculture as biofertilizers, biocontrols, or inducers of abiotic stress tolerance. Successful colonization by endophytes in the host plant is a key factor for beneficial plant microbe interaction that results in various plant growth promoting mechanisms. Colonization includes a series of phenomenon such as attachment, entry, motility, transmission, and multiplication of endophytic populations within the host plant. In this chapter, we will discuss the mechanisms of colonization, the rhizophagy cycle, and genomic insights of endophytic behavior and functions that will aid in the advancement and application of endophytes in various aspects of sustainable agriculture.

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5 – Endophytes and seed priming: agricultural applications and future prospects


Authors: Ajay Kumar, Samir Droby, James Francis White, Vipin Kumar Singh, Sandeep Kumar Singh, V. Yeka Zhimo, Antonio Biasi


In the current scenario of climate change, numerous strategies have been employed in the area of sustainable agriculture or plant science to generate plants, which can withstand various types of biotic and abiotic stresses. Currently, a range of biotic and abiotic stresses such as cold, draught, salinity, water deficit, or extreme pH is present that directly or indirectly influence the germination, growth, and productivity of crops. Seed priming has been developed as a crucial method to germinate the seed or increase plant resistance against various biotic and abiotic stresses. Seed priming is the induction of a particular physiological state in plants by the treatment of natural and synthetic compounds to seeds before germination.

Seed priming with microbial inoculum, termed as “bio-priming,” involves the application of beneficial microbes, such as bacteria, fungi actinomycetes, to seed that enhance the uniformity, establishment, and growth of various crops. Seed bio-priming allows the bacteria to enter/adhere to the seeds and also acclimatization of microbes in the prevalent conditions. Seed priming with the use of endophytic microbial strains appears as more beneficial or stable than rhizospheric microbial strains due to better colonization adaptability and suitability under biotic and abiotic stress conditions.

Read more: Chapter (Full Book)

Bioremediation of Soil Contaminated with Arsenic


Authors: María del Carmen Molina, Luis Fernando Bautista, Ignacio Belda, Manuel Carmona, Eduardo Díaz, Gonzalo Durante-Rodríguez, Sara García-Salgado, Jaime López-Asensio, Pilar Martínez-Hidalgo, María Ángeles Quijano, James F. White, Natalia González-Benítez


Human-industrial activity causes a remarkable increase in the arsenic (As) environmental concentrations, with a potential impact in plant and animal health, and may cause severe losses in biodiversity. This metalloid is bioaccumulative through the food chain and highly associated with different types of cancers. To overcome the inherent drawbacks of physicochemical removal techniques, biological treatments arose as adequate and cost-effective remediation alternatives for As pollution. An interest arises from the endophytes, which live inside the host plant and have been studied for their plant growth-promoting properties, production of bioactive molecules, biocontrol processes, and As detoxification. The integration of bioremediation with multiple omic technologies provides, moreover, innovative approaches to handle As remediation. The aim of this review is to show the latest knowledge, advances, and applications in arsenic bioremoval. We will focus on the following items: (1) human and environmental health, (2) biological tools for remediation with an emphasis in plants-microbiome interactions and omic technologies, (3) advances in As speciation analysis, and (4) As biosensors.

Read more: Chapter (Full Book)

Chapter Nine – Evidence for Widespread Microbivory of Endophytic Bacteria in Roots of Vascular Plants Through Oxidative Degradation in Root Cell Periplasmic Spaces


Authors: James F.White, Jr., Mónica S. Torres, Satish Kumar Verma, Matthew T. Elmore, Kurt P. Kowalski, Kathryn L. Kingsley


In this chapter we present a hypothesis, and data supporting it, that vascular plants in diverse families possess symbiotic/endophytic bacteria that frequently vector on or within their seeds; seedlings degrade symbiotic bacteria within roots. Evidence of widespread microbivory was found in a survey for intracellular bacteria that we conducted including seedlings in 36 species of vascular plants distributed in 20 plant families. Experiments indicate that when seeds germinate, bacteria colonize seedlings and internalize into root cells where they are oxidatively-degraded in the periplasmic spaces of cells. The process of degradation of microbes in roots has been termed “rhizophagy”, and “rhizophagy cycle” or “rhizophagy symbiosis” in the case of symbiotic bacteria that alternate between a free-living soil phase and intracellular/endophytic phase. We hypothesize that microbivory could account for a significant portion of nutrients acquired by plants from soils—with one estimate suggesting that as much as 30% of the nutrients acquired by seedlings may stem from rhizophagy symbiosis. Developing a better understanding of rhizophagy symbiosis could lead to new ways to cultivate crops without reliance on excessive agrochemical applications. Learning how to manipulate rhizophagy symbiosis could result in new technologies for reducing growth of weedy or invasive plant species by inhibiting rhizophagy symbiosis.

Read more: Chapter (Full Book)

Chapter 16 – Endophytic bacteria and rare earth elements; promising candidates for nutrient use efficiency in plants


Authors: Katia R. Prieto, Francisco Echaide-Aquino, Aurora Huerta-Robles, Hellen P.Valério, Gloria Macedo-Raygoza, Fernanda M. Prado, Marisa H. G. Medeiros, Hermi F. Brito, Ivan G. N. Silva, Maria C. F. Cunha Felinto, James F. White Jr., Paolo Di Mascio, Miguel J. Beltran-García


Nutrient use efficiency (NUE) depends on the plant’s ability to take up nutrients efficiently from the soil, but also depends on internal transport, storage and remobilization of nutrients. Nitrogen (N) is a fundamental element regulating plant growth and development. Plants have evolved inorganic and organic N-uptake systems to cope with heterogeneous N availability in the soil. However, NUE is dependent on root growth and root architecture. Endophytic bacteria have a direct influence on root growth and increase nutrient uptake. Under reciprocal exchange, trading carbon for nutrients, plant and bacteria establish a symbiotic association. In this chapter we will address how endophytic bacteria might contribute to efficient nutrient uptake, especially organic nitrogen, through bacterial cell degradation or by externally activating nitrogen transporters. Also, here we propose the use of rare earth elements as an option for improving NUE in plants and their possible use as fertilizers.

Read more: Chapter (Full Book)

Endophytic Microbes, Evolution and Diversification of


Authors: J. F. White, M. Tadych, M. S. Torres, M. S. Bergen, I. Irizarry, Q. Chen, C. Zambell


Endophytes are universally present in plants in natural situations. Recent research has demonstrated that endophytes form communities in plants and positively affect ecological fitness of host plants. The ecological diversity, biology, and evolutionary development of two ecological classes of microbial endophytes are discussed. A mechanism for how plants regulate microbial endophyte communities within their tissues is proposed to involve organic acids and other plant-produced secondary metabolites.

Read more: Chapter (Full Book)

Journal Articles:


Seaton, S., Lemaire, J., Inderbitzin, P., Knight-Connoni, V., White, J. F., & Trujillo, M. E. (2021). Pseudomonas arenae sp. nov., Pseudomonas glycinis sp. nov. and Pseudomonas harudinis sp. nov., three novel bacterial species and plant endophytes. bioRxiv. doi: 10.1101/2021.05.13.444027

Seaton, S., Lemaire, J., Inderbitzin, P., Knight-Connoni, V., White, J. F., & Trujillo, M. E. (2021). Curtobacterium glycinis sp. nov. from Glycine max, Curtobacterium gossypii sp. nov. from Gossypium hirsutum and Curtobacterium oryzae sp. nov. from Oryza sativa, three new Curtobacterium species and endophytes from agricultural crops. bioRxiv. doi: 10.1101/2021.03.18.434777

Verma, S. K., Chen, Q., & White, J. F. (2022). Evaluation of colonization and mutualistic endophytic symbiosis of Escherichia coli with tomato and Bermuda grass seedlings. PeerJ, 10, e13879. 10.7717/peerj.13879/supp-3


Chen, Y., Su, K., Li, C., & White, J. F. (2021). Interactive Effects of Epichloë Endophyte, Dormancy-Breaking Treatments and Geographic Origin on Seed Germination of Achnatherum inebrians. Microorganisms, 9(11), 2183. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9112183

Wang, J., Chen, T., Xue, L., Wei, X., White, J. F., Qin, Z., & Li, C. (2021). A new bacterial leaf blight disease of oat (Avena sativa) caused by Pantoea agglomerans in China. Plant Pathology. doi: 10.1111/ppa.13479

Chen, Z., Jin, Y., Li, X., Wei, X., Li, C., White, J. F., & Nan, Z. (2021). Characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of Hordeum jubatum (Poaceae: Pooideae: Triticeae) and phylogenetic analysis. Mitochondrial DNA Part B, 6(10), 2933-2935. doi: 10.1080/23802359.2021.1972868

Ma, Y., Li, C., & White, J. F. (2021). Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Endophyte-Infected Grass Achnatherum inebrians on Growth and Development of Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Insects, 12(10), 944. doi: 10.3390/insects12100944

Zhang, Q., & White, J. F. (2021). Bioprospecting Desert Plants for Endophytic and Biostimulant Microbes: A Strategy for Enhancing Agricultural Production in a Hotter, Drier Future. Biology, 10(10), 961. doi: 10.3390/biology10100961

Bashir, S., Iqbal, A., Hasnain, S., & White, J. F. (2021). Screening of sunflower associated bacteria as biocontrol agents for plant growth promotion. Archives of Microbiology, 203(8), 4901-4912. doi: 10.1007/s00203-021-02463-8

Li, S., Gou, W., Wang, H., White, J. F., Wu, G., & Su, P. (2021). Trade-Off Relationships of Leaf Functional Traits of Lycium ruthenicum in Response to Soil Properties in the Lower Reaches of Heihe River, Northwest China. Diversity, 13(9), 453. doi: 10.3390/d13090453

Beltran-Garcia, M. J., & White, J. F. (2021). Introduction to Special Issue: Plant Microbiome Augmentation and Stimulation—New Strategies to Grow Crops with Reduced Agrochemicals. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9091887

Beltran-Garcia, M. J., Martinez-Rodriguez, A., Olmos-Arriaga, I., Valdez-Salas, B., Chavez-Castrillon, Y. Y., Di Mascio, P., & White, J. F. (2021). Probiotic Endophytes for More Sustainable Banana Production. Microorganisms, 9(9), 1805. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9091805

Chen, T., White, J. F., Li, C., & Nan, Z. (2021). Exogenous spermidine enhances Epichloë endophyte-induced tolerance to NaCl stress in wild barley (Hordeum brevisubulatum). Plant and Soil, 1-19. doi: 10.1007/s11104-021-05109-2

Li, S., Wang, H., Jin, L., White, J. F., Kingsley, K. L., Gou, W., … & Wu, G. (2021). Validation and analysis of the geographical origin of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels using multi-element and stable isotopes. PeerJ, 9, e11928. doi: 10.7717/peerj.11928

Verma, H., Kumar, D., Kumar, V., Kumari, M., Singh, S. K., Sharma, V. K., Droby, S., Santoyo, G., White, J. F., & Kumar, A. (2021). The potential application of endophytes in management of stress from drought and salinity in crop plants. Microorganisms, 9(8), 1729. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9081729

Beltran-Garcia, M. J., Martínez-Rodríguez, A., Olmos-Arriaga, I., Valdes-Salas, B., Di Mascio, P., & White, J. F. (2021). Nitrogen fertilization and stress factors drive shifts in microbial diversity in soils and plants. Symbiosis, 84(3), 379-390. doi: 10.1007/s13199-021-00787-z

He, Y., Chen, T., Zhang, H., White, J. F., & Li, C. (2021). Fungal endophytes help grasses to tolerate sap-sucking herbivores through a hormone-signaling system. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 1-16. doi: 10.1007/s00344-021-10430-2

Li, S., Wang, H., Gou, W., White, J. F., Kingsley, K. L., Wu, G., & Su, P. (2021). Leaf functional traits of dominant desert plants in the Hexi Corridor, Northwest China: trade-off relationships and adversity strategies. Global Ecology and Conservation, e01666. doi: 10.1016/j.gecco.2021.e01666

Chang, X., Kingsley, K. L., & White, J. F. (2021). Chemical interactions at the interface of plant root hair cells and intracellular bacteria. Microorganisms, 9(5), 1041. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9051041

Verma, S. K., Sahu, P. K., Kumar, K., Pal, G., Gond, S. K., Kharwar, R. N., & White, J. F. (2021). Endophyte roles in nutrient acquisition, root system architecture development and oxidative stress tolerance. Journal of Applied Microbiology. doi: 10.1111/jam.15111

Chen, T., White, J. F., & Li, C. (2021). Fungal endophyte Epichloë bromicola infection regulates anatomical changes to account for salt stress tolerance in wild barley (Hordeum brevisubulatum). Plant and Soil, 461(1), 533-546. doi: 10.1007/s11104-021-04828-w

Chen, T., Qi, Y., Wang, L., White, J. F., & Li, C. (2021). First Report of Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Stemphylium vesicarium on Fagopyrum esculentum in China. Plant Disease, (ja). doi: 10.1094/PDIS-06-20-1391-PDN

Zhang, H., Li, X., White, J. F., Wei, X., He, Y., & Li, C. (2021). Epichloë Endophyte Improves Ergot Disease Resistance of Host (Achnatherum inebrians) by Regulating Leaf Senescence and Photosynthetic Capacity. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 1-10. doi: 10.1007/s00344-021-10340-3

Chen, Z., Jin, Y., Yao, X., Wei, X., Li, X., Li, C., White, J. F., & Nan, Z. (2021). Gene analysis reveals that leaf litter from Epichloë endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass alters diversity and abundance of soil microbes involved in nitrification and denitrification. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 154, 108123. doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2020.108123

Zhou, L., Li, C., White, J. F., & Johnson, R. D. (2021). Synergism between calcium nitrate applications and fungal endophytes to increase sugar concentration in Festuca sinensis under cold stress. PeerJ, 9, e10568. doi: 10.7717/peerj.10568

González-Benítez, N., Martín-Rodríguez, I., Cuesta, I., Arrayás, M., White, J. F., & Molina, M. C. (2021). Endophytic microbes are tools to increase tolerance in Jasione plants against arsenic stress. Frontiers in Microbiology, 12. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.664271

White, J. F., Chang, X., Kingsley, K. L., Zhang, Q., Chiaranunt, P., Micci, A., … & Kowalski, K. P. (2021). Endophytic bacteria in grass crop growth promotion and biostimulation. Grass Research, 1(1), 1-9. doi: 10.48130/GR-2021-0005

Kandasamy, S., Weerasuriya, N., White, J. F., Patterson, G., & Lazarovits, G. (2021). Soil’s physical and nutritional balance is essential for establishing a healthy microbiome. In Microbiome Stimulants for Crops (pp. 381-404). Woodhead Publishing. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-822122-8.00004-2

Singh, A., Singh, D. K., Kharwar, R. N., White, J. F., & Gond, S. K. (2021). Fungal endophytes as efficient sources of plant-derived bioactive compounds and their prospective applications in natural product drug discovery: Insights, avenues, and challenges. Microorganisms, 9(1), 197. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9010197

Tazik, Z., Rahnama, K., White, J. F., Soltanloo, H., Hasanpour, M., & Iranshahi, M. (2020). LC-MS based identification of stylosin and tschimgine from fungal endophytes associated with Ferula ovina. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 23(12), 1565. doi: 10.22038/ijbms.2020.46334.10703

Gupta, S., Kulkarni, M. G., White, J. F., & Van Staden, J. (2020). Epigenetic-based developments in the field of plant endophytic fungi. South African Journal of Botany, 134, 394-400. doi: 10.1016/j.sajb.2020.07.019

Gupta, S., White, J. F., Jr, & Kulkarni, M. G. (2020). An outlook on current and future directions in endophyte research. South African Journal of Botany, 134, 1-2. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-09-19-1952-RE

Xue, L., Zhang, Y., Duan, T., Li, M., White, J. F., Liu, Y., & Li, C. (2020). Characterization and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum Species on Philodendron tatei cv. Congo in Gansu Province, China. Plant disease, 104(10), 2571-2584. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-09-19-1952-RE

Xue, L., Liu, Y., Zhou, S., White, J. F., & Li, C. (2020). Characterization of Pyrenophora Species Causing Brown Leaf Spot on Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) in Southwestern China. Plant disease, 104(7), 1900-1907. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-19-1457-RE

Chen, Z., Jin, Y., Yao, X., Chen, T., Wei, X., Li, C., … & Nan, Z. (2020). Fungal endophyte improves survival of Lolium perenne in low fertility soils by increasing root growth, metabolic activity and absorption of nutrients. Plant and Soil, 452, 185-206. doi: 10.1007/s11104-020-04556-7

Tazik, Z., Rahnama, K., Iranshahi, M., White, J. F., & Soltanloo, H. (2020). Ochroconis ferulica sp. nov.(Venturiales), a fungal endophyte from Ferula ovina. Nova Hedwigia, 110(3-4), 369-381. doi: 10.1127/nova_hedwigia/2020/0576

Hatamzadeh, S., Rahnama, K., Nasrollahnejad, S., Fotohifar, K. B., Hemmati, K., & White, J. (2020). Evaluation of antioxidant activity of endophytic fungi isolated from some native medicinal species of Golestan province. Eco-phytochemical Journal of Medicinal Plants, 8(1), 64-76.

Chen, H., Li, C. J., & White, J. F. (2020). First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on oat (Avena sativa) in China. Plant Disease, 104(5), 1544. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-08-19-1692-PDN

Tazik, Z., Rahnama, K., Iranshahi, M., White, J. F., & Soltanloo, H. (2020). A new species of Pithoascus and first report of this genus as endophyte associated with Ferula ovina. Mycoscience, 61(3), 145-150. doi: 10.1016/j.myc.2020.01.002

Chen, H., Li, C. J., & White, J. F. (2020). First report of Epicoccum layuense causing brown leaf spot on oat (Avena sativa) in northwestern China. Plant Disease, 104(3), 990-990. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-09-19-1984-PDN

Yao, X., Chen, Z., Wei, X., Chen, S., White, J., Huang, X., … & Nan, Z. (2020). A toxic grass Achnatherum inebrians serves as a diversity refuge for the soil fungal community in rangelands of northern China. Plant and Soil, 1-14. doi: 10.1007/s11104-020-04440-4

Wang, Z., Li, C., & White, J. (2020). Effects of Epichloë endophyte infection on growth, physiological properties and seed germination of wild barley under saline conditions. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 206(1), 43-51. doi: 10.1111/jac.12366

Pietro-Souza, W., de Campos Pereira, F., Mello, I. S., Stachack, F. F. F., Terezo, A. J., da Cunha, C. N., … & Soares, M. A. (2020). Mercury resistance and bioremediation mediated by endophytic fungi. Chemosphere, 240, 124874. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124874

Hatamzadeh, S., Rahnama, K., Nasrollahnejad, S., Fotouhifar, K. B., Hemmati, K., White, J. F., & Taliei, F. (2020). Isolation and identification of L-asparaginase-producing endophytic fungi from the Asteraceae family plant species of Iran. PeerJ, 8, e8309. doi: 10.7717/peerj.8309

Chen, Q., Meyer, W. A., Zhang, Q., & White, J. F. (2020). 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis of the bacterial community associated with turf grass seeds from low moisture and high moisture climates. PeerJ, 8, e8417. doi: 10.7717/peerj.8417

Molina, M. D. C., White, J. F., García-Salgado, S., Quijano, M., & González-Benítez, N. (2020). A Gnotobiotic Model to Examine Plant and Microbiome Contributions to Survival under Arsenic Stress. Microorganisms, 9(1), 45. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9010045

Chen, Z., Li, C., Nan, Z., White, J. F., Jin, Y., & Wei, X. (2020). Segregation of Lolium perenne into a subpopulation with high infection by endophyte Epichloë festucae var. lolii results in improved agronomic performance. Plant and Soil, 446(1), 595-612. doi: 10.1007/s11104-019-04370-w


Tazik, Z., Rahnama, K., Iranshahi, M., White, J., & Soltanloo, H. (2019). New record of Cadophora interclivum from roots of Ferula ovina and F. felabelliloba in Iran. Mycologia Iranica, 6(2), 125-127. doi: 10.22043/mi.2020.121423

Xue, L., Zhang, L., Yang, X. X., Huang, X., Wu, W., Zhou, X., White, J. F., Yong, L., & Li, C. (2019). Characterization, Phylogenetic Analyses, and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum Species on Morus alba in Sichuan Province, China. Plant disease, 103(10), 2624-2633. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-06-18-0938-RE

White, J. F., Kingsley, K. L., Zhang, Q., Verma, R., Obi, N., Dvinskikh, S., … & Kowalski, K. P. (2019). Endophytic microbes and their potential applications in crop management. Pest management science, 75(10), 2558-2565. doi: 10.1002/ps.5527

Hatamzadeh, S., Rahnama, K., Fotouhifar, K. B., Nasrollahnejad, S., Hemmati, K., & White, J. (2019). First report of Preussia africana for Iranian mycoflora. Rostaniha, 20(1), 76-79. doi: 10.22092/botany.2019.125181.1142

Zhao, S., Liu, J. J., Banerjee, S., White, J. F., Zhou, N., Zhao, Z. Y., … & Tian, C. Y. (2019). Not by salinity alone: How environmental factors shape fungal communities in saline soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 83(5), 1387-1398. doi: 10.2136/sssaj2019.03.0082

Verma, S. K., Kharwar, R. N., & White, J. F. (2019). The role of seed-vectored endophytes in seedling development and establishment. Symbiosis, 78(2), 107-113. doi: 10.1007/s13199-019-00619-1

Sun, W., Xiong, Z., Chu, L., Li, W., Soares, M. A., White Jr, J. F., & Li, H. (2019). Bacterial communities of three plant species from Pb-Zn contaminated sites and plant-growth promotional benefits of endophytic Microbacterium sp.(strain BXGe71). Journal of hazardous materials, 370, 225-231. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.02.003

Macedo-Raygoza, G. M., Valdez-Salas, B., Prado, F. M., Prieto, K. R., Yamaguchi, L. F., Kato, M. J., Canto-Canché, B.B., Carrillo-Beltrán, M., Di Mascio, P., White, J. F., & Beltrán-García, M. J. (2019). Enterobacter cloacae, an endophyte that establishes a nutrient-transfer symbiosis with banana plants and protects against the black Sigatoka pathogen. Frontiers in microbiology, 10, 804. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00804

Elmore, M. T., White, J. F., Kingsley, K. L., Diehl, K. H., & Verma, S. K. (2019). Pantoea spp. Associated with smooth crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum) seed inhibit competitor plant species. Microorganisms, 7(5), 143. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms7050143

Sharma, V. K., Li, X. Y., Wu, G. L., Bai, W. X., Parmar, S., White Jr, J. F., & Li, H. Y. (2019). Endophytic community of Pb-Zn hyperaccumulator Arabis alpina and its role in host plants metal tolerance. Plant and Soil, 437(1), 397-411. doi: 10.1007/s11104-019-03988-0

Chen, T., Li, C., White, J. F., & Nan, Z. (2019). Effect of the fungal endophyte Epichloë bromicola on polyamines in wild barley (Hordeum brevisubulatum) under salt stress. Plant and Soil, 436(1), 29-48. doi: 10.1007/s11104-018-03913-x

Hatamzadeh, S., Rahnama, K., Nasrollanejad, S., Fotouhifar, K. B., Hemmati, K., & White, J. (2018). Septoria malagutii as an endophytic fungus of Achillea millefolium from Iran. Mycologia Iranica, 5(2), 105-107. doi: 10.22043/mi.2018.120384

James F. White, Kathryn L. Kingsley, Satish K. Verma, Kurt P. Kowalski. 2018. Rhizophagy Cycle: An Oxidative Process in Plants for Nutrient Extraction from Symbiotic Microbes. Microorganisms 6, 95 doi:10.3390/microorganisms6030095

Verma, S.K., K.L. Kingsley, M.S. Bergen, K.P. Kowalski, J.F. White. 2018. Fungal disease protection in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings by growth promoting seed-associated endophytic bacteria from invasive Phragmites australis. MDPI: Microorganisms. doi 10.3390/microorganisms6010021

Irizarry, I., J. F. White. 2018. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alters gene expression, ROS production, and lignin synthesis in cotton seedling roots. J. Applied Microbiology. doi: 10.1111/jam.13744

Verma, S., J. F. White. 2018. Indigenous endophytic seed bacteria promote seedling development and defend against fungal disease in browntop millet (Urochloa ramosa L.). J. Applied Microbiology. DOI 10.1111/jam.13673

Drake, I., J.F. White, F. Belanger. 2018. Identification of the fungal endophyte of Ammophila breviligulata (American beachgrass) as Epichloë amarillans. Peer J. 6:e4300

Lata, R., S. Chowdhury, S. K. Gond, J.F. White, Jr. 2018. Induction of abiotic stress tolerance in plants by endophytic microbes. Letters in Applied Microbiology. DOI: 10.1111/lam.12855.

Sun, W., Z. Xiong, L. Chu, W. Li, M. Soares, J. F. White, H-Y. Li. 2018. Bacterial communities of three plant species from Pb-Zn contaminated sites and plant-growth promotional benefits of endophytic Microbacterium sp. (strain BXGe71). J. Hazardous Materials DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.02.003.

Harper, C., E. Taylor, C. Walker, J. F. White, R. Serbet, M. Krings. 2018. Fungal Sporulation in a Permian Plant Fragment from Antarctica. Bull. Geosciences.

Wei Li, Long Chu, James F. White, Jr., Zhi Xiong, Xinya Li, Qiaohong Li, Sihui Zhao, Haiyan Li. 2017. Diversity and heavy metal tolerance of endophytic fungi from Chenopodium ambrosioides, a hyperaccumulator of Pb-Zn from contaminated soils. J. Plant Interactions.

White JF, Kingsley KI, Kowalski KP, Irizarry I, Micci A, Soares MA, Bergen MS. 2017. Disease protection and allelopathic interactions of seed-transmitted endophytic pseudomonads of invasive reed grass (Phragmites australis). Plant and Soil DOI: 10.1007/s11104-016-3169-6

Ivelisse Irizarry and James F. White. 2017. Application of bacteria from non-cultivated plants to promote growth, alter root architecture and alleviate salt stress of cotton. Journal Applied Microbiology 122(4):1110-1120. doi: 10.1111/jam.13414.

Michael Krings, Carla J. Harper, James F. White, Manfred Barthel, Jochen Heinrichs, Edith L. Taylor, Thomas N. Taylor. 2017. Fungi in a Psaronius root mantle from the Rotliegend (Asselian, lower Permian/Cisuralian) of Thuringia, Germany. Review of Paleobitany and Palynology. 239: 14–30. DOI 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2016.12.004

Jingjin Xie, Qiang Chen, Poornima Suresh, Subrata Roy, James F. White, and Aaron D. Mazzeo. 2017. Paper-based Plasma Sanitizers. PNAS DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621203114

Satish K Verma, Kathryn Kingsley, Marshall Bergen, Camille English, Matthew Elmore, Ravindra N Kharwar, James F White. 2017. Bacterial endophytes from rice cut grass (Leersia oryzoides L.) increase growth, promote root gravitropic response, stimulate root hair formation, and protect rice seedlings from disease. Plant and Soil. DOI: 10.1007/s11104-017-3339-1

William Pietro-Souza, Ivani Souza Mello, Suzana Junges Vendruscullo, Gilvan Ferreira da Silva, Cátia Nunes da Cunha, James Francis White, Marcos Antônio Soares. 2017. Endophytic fungal communities of Polygonum acuminatum and Aeschynomene fluminensis are influenced by soil mercury contamination. PLoS ONE 12(7):e0182017

James White. 2017. Syntrophic imbalance and the etiology of bacterial endoparasitism diseases. Medical Hypothesis 104C:

Satish Kumar Verma, Kathryn Kingsley, Ivelisse Irizarry, Marshall Bergen, Ravindra Nath Kharwar, James F White, Jr. 2017. Seed vectored endophytic bacteria modulate development of rice seedlings. J. Applied Microbiology 122:

Yanwisetpakdee B, Lotrakul P, Prasongsuk S, Seelanan T, White JF, Eveleigh DE, Kim SW, Punnapayak H. 2016. Associations among halotolerance, osmotolerance and exopolysaccharide production of Aureobasidium melanogenum strains from habitats under salt stress. Pak. J. Bot 48(3): 1229-1239

Soares MA, Li HY, Kowalski KP, Bergen M, Torres MS, White JF. 2016a. Functional role of bacteria from invasive Phragmites australis in promotion of host growth. Microbial Ecology DOI: 10.1007/s00248-016-0793-x.

Siqueira KA, Brissow ER, Santos JL, White JF, Santos FR, de Almeida EG, Soares MA.2016. Endophytism and bioactivity of endophytic fungi isolated from Combretum lanceolatum Pohl ex Eichler. Symbiosis DOI: 10.1007/s13199-016-0427-6<

Mariusz Tadych, Nicholi Vorsa, Yifei Wang, James White. 2015. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: The proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi. Frontiers in Microbiology 6:835, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00835

Marcos Soares, Hai-Yan Li, Marshall Bergen, James White. 2015. Functional role of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in enhancing growth and disease protection of invasive English ivy (Hedera helix L.). Plant and Soil DOI: 10.1007/s11104-015-2638-7

Hai-Yan Li, Marcos Soares, Monica Torres, James White. 2015. Endophytic bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, enhances ornamental hosta resistance to diseases and insect pests. Journal of Plant Interactions DOI: 10.1080/17429145.2015.1056261

Charles Bacon, James White. 2015. Functions, Mechanisms and Regulation of Endophytic and Epiphytic Microbial Communities of Plants. Symbiosis DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1956.9124

Wen-An Zhou, James White, Marcos Soares, Hai-Yan Li. 2015. Diversity of fungi associated with plants growing in geothermal ecosystems and evaluation of their capacities to enhance thermotolerance of host plants. Journal of Plant Interactions DOI: 10.1080/17429145.2015.1101495

Surendra K. Gond, Marshall S. Bergen, Mónica S. Torres, James F. White. 2015. Effect of bacterial endophyte on expression of defense genes in Indian popcorn against Fusarium moniliforme. Symbiosis DOI: 10.1007/s13199-015-0348-9

Surendra K. Gond, Mónica S. Torres, Marshall S. Bergen, Zane Helsel, James F. White. 2015. Induction of salt tolerance and up-regulation Sof aquaporin genes in tropical corn by rhizobacterium Pantoea agglomerans. Letters in Applied Microbiology doi:10.1111/lam.12385.

Kurt P. Kowalski, Charles Bacon, Wesley Bickford, Heather Braun, Keith Clay, Michele Leduc-Lapierre, Elizabeth Lillard, Melissa McCormick, Eric Nelson, Monica Torres, James White and Douglas A. Wilcox. 2015. Advancing the science of microbial symbiosis to support invasive species management: A case study on Phragmites in the Great Lakes. Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2015; 6:95. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00095

James F White, Qiang Chen, Monica Torres, Robert Mattera, Ivelisse Irizarry, Mariusz Tadych, Marshall Bergen. 2015. Collaboration between grass seedlings and rhizobacteria to scavenge organic nitrogen in soils. AoB PLANTS 01/2015; doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plu093